Many students with disabilities or other learning challenges struggle within the math classroom daily. Students with disabilities may fall behind in math education due to visual processing difficulties, visual memory issues and/or visual-spatial relationships. Visual learning impacts math proficiency in multiple ways that link together with conceptual understanding and fluency within problem solving. Understanding the math standards to be taught, how they work, their essence and how they work together to build students math learning over time is essential for all educators. Because all teachers will work with students with disabilities and/or students who struggle to learn math, it is also important to understand how research-based practices to support these students can be utilized within the everyday classroom to support all learners. The use of graphic organizers and a concrete-representational-abstract sequencing approach can help to build the visual processing skills within mathematical concepts. Additionally, other research-based strategies such as peer supports and explicit instruction could be considered within the planning structure of the daily math centered classroom routines.

Other related MAST modules:

Learning Progressions 101Students with Significant Intellectual Difficulties: Math Education

Universal Design for Learning: An Introduction

Jimenez, B. A. & Richardson, K. (2013). Math for learners with disabilities and other learning challenges. *Modules Addressing Special Education and Teacher Education (MAST)*. Greenville, NC: East Carolina University. Available from http://mast.ecu.edu/modules/ssid_ma

Access Center. (2005). *Strategies to improve access to the general education curriculum*. Washington, DC: American Institute for Research. Retrieved from http://k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/teachingmatters.asp

Council for Exceptional Children. (2013). *Current practice alerts*. Available from http://www.teachingld.org/ld_resources/alerts/default.htm

Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2002). Mathematical problem-solving profiles of students with mathematics disabilities with and without co-morbid reading disabilities. *Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35*(6), 564-745.

Gersten, R., Baker, S., & Chard, D. (2006, November). Effective instructional practices for students with difficulties in mathematics: Findings from a research synthesis. Presentation at the Center on Instruction, Mathematics Summit, New York. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Russell%20Gersten%20David%20Chard%20Effective%20Instruction1.pdf

Harrison, M., & Harrison, B. (1986). Developing numeration concepts and skills.* Arithmetic Teacher, 3(*6), 1-21.

Jitendra, A. (2002). Teaching students math problem-solving through graphic representations. *Teaching Exceptional Children, 34*(4), 34-38.

Louie, J., Brodesky, A., Brett, J., Yang, L. -M., and Tan, Y. (2008). Math education practices for students with disabilities and other struggling learners: case studies of six schools in two Northeast and Islands Region states(Issues and Answers Report, REL 2008-No. 053). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs

Maccini, P., & Gagnon, J. C. (2000). Best practices for teaching mathematics to secondary students with special needs: implications from teacher perceptions and are view of the literature. *Focus on Exceptional Children, 32*(5), 1-22.

Maccini, P., & Gagnon, J. (2005). Math graphic organizers for students with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training_resources/documents/MathGraphicOrg.pdf

Mazzocco, M. M. M. (2007). Defining and differentiating mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties. In D. Berch & M. Mazzocco (Eds.), *Why is math so hard for some children?* (pp. 29-47). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Miller, S., Butler, F., & Lee, K. (1998). Validated practices for teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities: A review of the literature. *Focus on Exceptional Children, 31*(1),1-24.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). *Principles and standards for school mathematics*. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center (2012). *Using visual displays to teach academic skills*. Available from http://www.nsttac.org/content/using-visual-displays-teach-academic-skills

The Common Core State Standards in Mathematics are outlined here, organized by grade level or standard. The learning progressions and mathematical practices are also outlined and discussed to provide educators a deep understanding of math education. http://www.corestandards.org/Math

The Council for Exceptional Children, Division for Learning Disabilities outline of the practice, research to support and implementation guidelines. http://s3.amazonaws.com/cmi-teaching-ld/alerts/6/uploaded_files/original_alert13.pdf?1301000665

Sample videos and supports for teaching. https://www.teachingchannel.org/